Evolution of Computer Networking

Evolution of Computer Networking 


Networking computers is combining several independent disciples of science and engineering such as telecommunications, computer science, information technology and/or computer engineering. The computers are connected with each other primarily by means of telecommunication.

Telecommunication, in turn, can be run using computers and in both wired and wireless modes. To reach sophisticated technological precisions of devices, including computers, used in building efficient computer networks information technology and computer science have been a booster. Chronology of evolution of Computer Networking Even before nineteenth century AD, visual signs are thought to be used in networking. The communication between calculation machines used to be made by passing instructions manually. The development of current day computer networking can be traced back to middle of the past century. Chronologically, it can be described as follows: September 1940 - Use of a teletype machine by George Stibitz to send instructions for a problem set from his Model at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and receiving return results.

August 1962 - Computer scientist J.C.R. Licklider of Bolt, Beranek and Newman Company formulated and published the concept of linking output systems like teletypes to computers to built "Intergalactic Computer Network". October 1963 - The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) hired J.C.R. Licklider to design and develop the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) in interest of United States Department of Defense for sharing resources and information. 1964 - Researchers developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for discrete computer systems at Dartmouth.

In the same year, a group of researchers at MIT succeeded to route and manage telephone using computers. This project was supported by General Electric and Bell Labs. 1965 - Lawrence G. Roberts and Thomas Merrill succeeded in creating the first wide area network (WAN). In the same year, the very first widely used PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) switch was introduced by Western Electric. It was important as it used true computer control for networking for the first time in history.

November 1969 - The first permanent ARPANET link was established on between the Interface Messaging Processor (IMP) at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the IMP at the Stanford Research Institute. December 1969 - The entire four-node network with University of California, Santa Barbara, UCLA, Stanford Research Institute and University of Utah's Computer Science Department on respective nodes was connected. 1972 - Commercial services using X.25 were deployed in, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol networks. 1989 - World Wide Web was invented by Timothy Berners-Lee at the European Laboratory of Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland.

The continuous effort to connect through computer networks and also communicating between them, the technologies has been evolving through augmentation of computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. As a consequence, the scope of communication has developed manifold. Such development would have been impossible without advancements in computer network.
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Computer Storage Options - Today Tomorrow

Computer Storage Options - Today  Tomorrow


Abstract:

This is the article brings the brief about the today's and future computer storage options. Most of ours using computers and systems, but we do not know much more details about the storage and storage options existing today. For those people, you can easily get to know about the brief introduction and overview of nowadays storage options - personal and enterprise from this article.

Hard Disk Drive:

If anyone hears about computer storage, suddenly he might have think about this hard disk only. It is a common storage option, most of the PC's have. After 1990, the evolutions of hard disk become more and more. So it easily occupies our PC's without any competitions of other storage options. Compare to other storage options this is the smartest storage, suitable for personal computers. There are two main types of hard disks are used in today's systems. They are,

oMagnetic Hard Disks
oSolid State Disks

Magnetic Hard Disks:

Magnetic Hard Disk Drive is a digital data storage device that reads and writes data via magnetization changes of a magnetic storage disk. This includes one or more randomly accessible rotatable storage media, or disks. Nowadays magnetic hard disks are there in market up to terabytes. Yes, a single hard disk drive has that much memory like a big storage server. The first commercial magnetic HDD introduced by IBM in 1956 having 5MB storage. But last year Hitachi introduced 1TB magnetic HDD. This year 2008, Seagate announced 1.5 TB HDD for personal and enterprise purposes. This HDD are having data transfer rate is nearly 16 to 20 Mb/s.

Solid State Disks:

The design of solid-state disk starts with combining the each block like Flash memory, Memory controller, RAM, RAM Controller, Processor and Host etc., M-Systems introduced first flash-based solid-state drives in 1995. (SanDisk acquired M-Systems in November 2006). Since then, flash based SSDs demands high in military and aerospace industries, as well as other mission-critical applications. Nowadays in SSD, Flash is used as a permanent storage and RAM is used as a temporary storage between Flash and processor to increase the performance.

It's very suitable for small hand held systems and note books, because it does not have moving parts, requires less power, Host data transfer rate of up to 3Gb/s and silent operation. Up to 2007 middle only 64GB (Samsung  SanDisk) solid-state drives are there in the market with in the size that is compatible with notebooks. In this year Samsung announces a super-fast 256 GB, 2.5-inch solid-state drive. 'Super Talent' has announced the world's thinnest 256 GB 2.5-inch SSD drive. Toshiba also launched 3 MLC flash SSD families with SATA interfaces.

Optical Disks:

The main uses of optical storage disks are content exchange, backup and archiving and not for primary storage. It's having capacity from 300 MB to 30 GB. Before the evolutions of Optical Storage Disks, the Magnetic floppy disks are used for data exchange and for small storages. Because of the very little storage (1.44 MB) and small life period of floppy, the optical disks had overtaken that. There are four main commercial types of optical disk's are there for present day usage. They are,

oLaser Disks
oCompact Disks (CD)
oDigital Versatile Disks (DVD)
oBlu-Ray Disks (BD)

Laser Disks:

The laserdisc was the first optical storage medium used for commercial purposes, particularly for the movie industry. Paul Gregg invented the laserdisc technology in 1958, making use of a transparent disc. Laserdiscs are famous in 80's for audio songs and although the VHS (Video Home System) cassettes and the CD/DVD format has overtaken the Laserdisc in usage. It looks 30 centimeters in diameter and it is made up of two single-sided discs. Laserdisc is actually an analog format unlike CDs or DVDs which are digital. Now Laser disks doesn't have any market, but still some people are using this to hear old songs.

Compact Disks:

The most common form of optical storage is the Compact Disk (CD). Even with the arrival of other more powerful optical media, CDs remain a popular way for industries to package software, games, music, and movies. These discs provide low-cost and easy-to-use back-up for and physical transfer of data files. Normally compact disks are coming in two ways. One is CD-R (one time write and more number of reads) and CD-RW (More number of read and writes). A standard CD has a capacity of about 74 minutes of standard CD audio music and holds about 700 MB. But actual capacity depends on the format of writing.

Digital Versatile Disks:

This is the improved form of compact disks, commonly known as DVD. It has another expansion like Digital Video Disks also. It also contains DVD-R and DVD-RW separation like the above. A standard DVD offers 4.7 GB (Single Layer) / 8.5 GB (Dual Layer) storage. But it looks similar like CD. We can read/write the CDs in the DVD Writer, but CD writer won't read the DVD.

Blu-Ray Disks:

It is the next-generation optical disks, able to hold high-definition video and other high-density storage. A single-sided Blu-ray disk can hold 25 GB of storage, while a dual-sided one can store 50 GB. The Blu-ray disk's size is similar to that of the CD and the DVD - 120 mm in diameter. It uses 405 nm wavelength of laser, so only it named as a Blu-ray disk. It has 54 Mbps transfer rate is superior to both the CD (150 Kbps) and the DVD's (11.1 Mbps). Blu-ray discs are more expensive and slower to manufacture, mainly used for Game storage like play stations.

RAID:

It is expanded like Redundant Array of Independent Disks. It is a technology that employs the simultaneous use of two or more Hard disk drive to achieve greater levels of performance, reliability, and/or larger data volume sizes. A RAID distributes data across several physical disks. There are three different types of RAID concepts. They are,

oSoftware RAID

oHardware RAID

oFirmware/driver based RAID

Tape Storage: 
The main usage of tape storage is offline storage and backup for primary storage. Today's magnetic tape is most commonly packaged in cartridges and cassettes. Tape drives can be connected to a computer with SCSI commonly and Fibre Channel, FICON, ESCON, parallel port, IDE, SATA, USB, FireWire or other interfaces also. It has the following important benefits.

oIt offers lowest cost per megabyte of all storage media options.

oExtremely high capacity per cartridge.

oPortable

The same like it has some limitations also.

oVery slow operation (both read and write)

oRelatively short operational life compare to other storage media

oSubject to deterioration and environmental hazards

The difference between tape data storage and disk data storage is that tape is an Sequential access medium while disk is a random access medium. Nowadays Tape Storage is used to store data's, which doesn't need, but should have a Backup like Hospital passed away patients record.

Network Attached Storage:

It is commonly known as NAS, used for enterprise storage as a server. These devices contains embedded processors that run some sort of operating system or microprocessors that understands networking protocols and is optimized for particular tasks, such as file service and network backup etc., NAS is an ideal choice for organizations looking for a simple and cost-effective way to achieve fast data access for multiple clients at the file level. Some important benefits of NAS are listed below.

oFiles are easily shared among users at high demand and performance

oFiles are easily accessible by the same user from different locations

oDemand for local storage at the desktop is reduced

oStorage can be added more economically and partitioned among users-Highly scalable

oData can be backed up form the common repository more efficiently than from desktops

oMultiple file servers can be consolidated into a single managed storage pool

Storage Area Network:

It is commonly known as SAN. It is a high performance storage network that transfers data between servers and storage devices, separate from the local area network. For a normal person these two, SAN and NAS are giving big confusion. These two are used as server storage but the main difference is, NAS uses LAN but SAN won't use it. Some advantages of SAN over NAS are listed below.

oSuperior Performance

oReduces Network bottlenecks

oHighly Scalable

oAllows backup of storage devices with minimal impact on production operations

oFlexibility in configuration.

Online Backup:

The above said methods are convenient and quick, and many offer plenty of inexpensive storage space. For Enterprises, the big problem is coming at the time of disaster, hurricane, earthquake, fire occurs, both the computer and the data backup servers could be destroyed. There's also the problem of theft, of course. But online backup services, which save the most critical computer files on a secure, off-site server over the Internet.

Online Backup means remote Backing up Services. That is taking backup via the Internet to a remote location can protect against some worst-case scenarios mentioned above. A drawback of this an Internet connection is usually substantially slower than the speed of local data storage devices and it also has the risk associated with putting control of company secrets data in the hands of a third party.

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Storage Servers

Storage Servers


Introduction:

A storage server is a type of server used to store and manage digital data and acts as a backup server to store backup data. A storage server will be used for storing both small and large amount of data over a shared network. Although the need for storage is evident, it is not always clear which solution is right for your organization. There are a variety of options available, the most prevalent are direct-attached storage (DAS), network-attached storage (NAS) and storage area networks (SAN). Choosing the right storage solution can be as personal and individual decision. There is no one right answer for everyone. Instead, it is important to focus on the specific needs and long-term business goals of your organization. Several key criteria to consider include:

1 - Capacity

2 - Performance

3 - Scalability

4 - Availability  reliability

5 - Data protection

6 - IT staff and Resources available

7 - Budgets concern

DAS (Direct Attached Storage):

Direct Attached Storage (DAS) is a digital storage device that is attached directly to a server or PC via cable, meaning that DAS is not a part of the storage network. A DAS device may be an internal or external hard disk drive like internal hard drive in PC. These disk drives can be protected with different RAID levels, depending on data importance and criticality. For the server, a DAS storage is very much similar to its own internal drive or an external drive that has been plugged in.

The main interfaces used for DAS connection include Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA), Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA), eSATA, Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), Serial Attached SCSI (SAS), and Fiber Channel.

It is worth mentioning that high access rate due to network absence, capability of storage capacity extension, data security and fault tolerance are some of advantages of DAS. However, the primary benefits of DAS include low cost and simplicity. Since it does not need components of network storage systems such as routers, switches and appropriate cabling and connections. The drawback of DAS is that it is not accessible by multiple user groups and only one user at a time is allowed.

DAS is the most basic level of storage. The storage devices are part of the host computer or directly connected to a single server, in which the workstation must access the server in order to connect to the storage device. On the opposite side, NAS and SAN are connected to workstation and servers over a network. In the DAS, if the server is down or experiencing problems, users can not store and access data. Surveillance images cannot be retrieved or stored. If the organization grows and needs new servers, storage for each server must be administered separately.

NAS (Network Attached Storage):

NAS is a type of file storage device that connects to a network. NAS devices, which typically do not have a keyboard or display, provide Local Area Network (LAN) nodes with file storage through a standard Ethernet connection. In fact, NAS employs an Ethernet connection for sharing files over the network.

Each NAS on the LAN acts as an independent network node which has its own IP address. Since the NAS device has an IP address, it will be accessible over the network via that IP address. NAS devices can be built with single drive or multiple drives. The latter provides higher capacity and greater data protection.

The existence of multiple computers on the network, is a candidate for using a network attached storage (NAS) device. Some NAS servers are just used for backing up and sharing files across the network, while others can do more tasks, such as sharing a printer among the networked PCs, acting as a media streamer or even a surveillance system by supporting IP cameras.

NAS has benefits such as good reading and writing performance, good data redundancy and protection options, offering security via data encryption, sharing files, backing up data from Windows, Mac, and possibly Linux machines and offering some cloud service for storage and backup.

The application of NAS in homes is storing and serving multimedia files and automated backup. For instance, many smart TVs use NAS to provide centralized storage. If a NAS device has a server mode, it can also act as an email, multimedia, database or print server for a small business. In enterprise level, a NAS array can be used as a backup for archiving and recovery. Also, some NAS products can hold enough disks to support RAID for greater data protection.

For those systems that must store a large amount of videos/images for many days, NAS is a good option. Network-Attached Storage comprised of both hard disks and management software. NAS serves files over a network. As a result, NAS relieves the server of storage and file serving responsibilities and provides more flexibility in data access, because of its independence.

SAN (Storage Area Network):

A Storage Area Network (SAN) is a secure high-speed data transfer network in which storage devices can access to multiple servers. It is a high-performance storage network that transfers data between servers and storage devices separate from local area network. SAN is often used where larger areas of high-speed storage and fast input-output space is required.

In contrast to DAS or NAS, which are optimized for data sharing at the first level, the strength of the SAN lies in its ability to move large blocks of data. This is so important for Band-Width intensive applications such as IP/Megapixel camera system recording. It provides block-level storage, meaning that when a host wants to access a storage device, it sends a block-based access request for that storage device. SAN storage devices include disk-based devices like RAID.

SAN implementation which is in two following types, leads to consistent and secure data transferring. Depending on what type is used, different types of cabling, protocols and routing equipment are used.

 Fiber channel (FC): Storage and servers are connected through a high-speed network of unified fiber channel switches. This is used for mission-critical applications where continuous data access is required. Fiber channel provides data retrieval speed more than 5 Gbps.

 Internet Small Computer System Interface (ISCSI) Protocol: SCSI is a standard used to communicate between servers and storage devices. By this infrastructure, the flexibility of a low-cost IP network is achieved.


In a SAN network, data transferring from one storage to another is conducted without or with minimal server intervention. SAN provides dynamic failover protection which means if a server fails or goes offline for maintenance, network operation continues. Also, additional capacity can be added to SAN as required. These, are the advantages of SAN. The main disadvantages of SANs are cost and complexity. Because SAN hardware is expensive and also building and managing a SAN, require a special skill set.

The distributed architecture of SAN enables it to offer higher level of performance and reliability. SANs provide fast data transfer while reducing latency and server workload.

VSA (Virtual Storage Appliance):

Virtual Storage Appliance (VSA) is a storage controller which runs on a virtual machine to create a shared storage without the need of additional hardware. It presents either file-level or block-level storage to the network.

VSA is not a connected physical device to any specific hardware. It uses the host system's local disk for storage as a virtual disk or it can access to local physical drives directly. In fact, the VSA creates a virtual storage area similar to networked storage by incorporating direct-attached capacity on each physical host. Small businesses that need redundancy and high availability for shared storage and also large enterprises which transfer data between various arrays, are good usage candidates for the virtual storage appliance.

The differences between NAS, SAN and DAS:

NAS differs from a SAN in the way they distribute storage to other devices, meaning that the main difference between these two, is access protocols. NAS supports data storage under CIFS and NFS protocols (file-level), while access protocols in SAN are ISCSI and Fiber channel (block level).

On the other hand, it may seem, DAS is faster than any other storage methods. Since it needs data transferring over the network, while all data transferring will be occurred on a dedicated connection between the server and the storage device. However, due to high speed connection of fiber channel, in some cases SAN presents faster speed compared to speed provided by DAS. Also, Since SAN separates storage from the servers and incorporates them in a place where it can be accessed by any application, it provides better flexibility, availability and storage performance compared to DAS for large organization. So, due to the improved storage performance of SAN, organizations won't need additional storage hardware, which saves money, although SAN hardware can be costly. Moreover, separating storage device from the servers, allows computing resources on the servers to perform other tasks not related to storage.

On the other hand, the difference between DAS and Network Attached Storage (NAS) is that a DAS device connects directly to a server without a network connection. DAS gives good performance, but there are limitations like the number of servers that can access to it. Also DAS storage has to be near to the server in the same rack. The advantage of NAS over DAS is that it simplifies file sharing among multiple users. The main difference is about how the computer or the server treats a particular storage. If the server's processor is responsible for managing the attached storage, it will be some type of DAS and if the computer or the server treats the attached storage as another computer, which shares its data through the network, then it is a NAS.

Using storage servers for NVR and DVR:

Video surveillance requirements for high storage capacity and increasing the retention period, make the NVR or DVR to utilize the external storage servers in order to achieve a desired surveillance system. Regardless of format, both DVRs and NVRs can employ external storages presented in previous sections for improved capacity and reliability.

DAS has been the most implemented storage device in DVRs, so that it has generally became the part of this recording system. For medium and large scale video surveillance where performance, reliability and scalability of the storage system are important issues, newer external storages like SAN and NAS are more helpful than fixed DAS storage.

Summary:

The storage component may be internal, fixed DAS storage, or may employ some type of external storage. Also, the other major component of surveillance system is the DVR or NVR which as engine of the entire system manages one or more cameras and the storage subsystem. Video frames from cameras are transferred from the DVR or NVR to the storage system. So choosing the appropriate storage device to achieve capacity and reliability, leads to a great surveillance system.

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PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN SEKOLAH DASAR KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR K13

Pengertian Kompetensi Inti (KI), Kompetensi Dasar (KD) dan  Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi

·         Kompetensi Inti merupakan terjemahan atau operasionalisasi SKL dalam bentuk kualitas yang harus dimiliki mereka yang telah menyelesaikan pendidikan pada satuan pendidikan tertentu atau jenjang pendidikan tertentu, gambaran mengenai kompetensi utama yang dikelompokkan ke dalam aspek sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan (afektif, kognitif, dan psikomotor) yang harus dipelajari peserta didik untuk suatu jenjang sekolah, kelas dan mata pelajaran. Kompetensi Inti harus menggambarkan kualitas yang seimbang antara pencapaian hard skills dan soft skills. 

Kompetensi Inti berfungsi sebagai unsur pengorganisasi (organising element) kompetensi dasar.Sebagai unsur pengorganisasi, Kompetensi Inti merupakan pengikat untuk organisasi vertikal dan organisasi horizontal Kompetensi Dasar. Organisasi vertikal Kompetensi Dasar adalah keterkaitan antara konten Kompetensi Dasar satu kelas atau jenjang pendidikan ke kelas/jenjang di atasnya sehingga memenuhi prinsip belajar yaitu terjadi suatu akumulasi yang berkesinambungan antara konten yang dipelajari siswa. Organisasi horizontal adalah keterkaitan antara konten Kompetensi Dasar satu mata pelajaran dengan konten Kompetensi Dasar dari mata pelajaran yang berbeda dalam satu pertemuan mingguan dan kelas yang sama sehingga terjadi proses saling memperkuat.

Kompetensi Inti dirancang dalam empat kelompok yang saling terkait yaitu berkenaan dengan sikap keagamaan (kompetensi inti 1), sikap sosial (kompetensi 2), pengetahuan (kompetensi inti 3), dan penerapan pengetahuan (kompetensi 4). Keempat kelompok itu menjadi acuan dari Kompetensi Dasar dan harus dikembangkan dalam setiap peristiwa pembelajaran secara integratif. Kompetensi yang berkenaan dengan sikap keagamaan dan sosial dikembangkan secara tidak langsung (indirect teaching) yaitu pada waktu peserta didik belajar tentang pengetahuan (kompetensi kelompok 3) dan penerapan pengetahuan (kompetensi Inti kelompok 4).

·         Kompetensi Dasar merupakan kompetensi setiap mata pelajaran untuk setiap kelas yang diturunkan dari Kompetensi Inti. Kompetensi Dasar adalah konten atau kompetensi yang terdiri atas sikap, pengetahuan, dan ketrampilan yang bersumber pada kompetensi inti yang harus dikuasai peserta didik. Kompetensi tersebut dikembangkan dengan memperhatikan karakteristik peserta didik, kemampuan awal, serta ciri dari suatu mata pelajaran. Kompetensi dasar adalah sejumlah kemampuan yang harus dikuasai peserta didik dalam mata pelajaran tertentu sebagai rujukan penyusunan indikator kompetensi dalam suatu pelajaran;

Mata pelajaran sebagai sumber dari konten untuk menguasai kompetensi bersifat terbuka dan tidak selalu diorganisasikan berdasarkan disiplin ilmu yang sangat berorientasi hanya pada filosofi esensialisme dan perenialisme. Mata pelajaran dapat dijadikan organisasi konten yang dikembangkan dari berbagai disiplin ilmu atau non disiplin ilmu yang diperbolehkan menurut filosofi rekonstruksi sosial, progresif atau pun humanisme. Karena filosofi yang dianut dalam kurikulum adalah eklektik seperti dikemukakan di bagian landasan filosofi maka nama mata pelajaran dan isi mata pelajaran untuk kurikulum yang akan dikembangkan tidak perlu terikat pada kaedah filosofi esensialisme dan perenialisme.Pengertian tentang kompetensi dasar, indikator pencapaian kompetensi, serta tujuan pembelajaran sesuai dalam Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional No. 41 tahun 2007 tentang Standar Proses Untuk Satuan Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah disebutkan :

·  Indikator pencapaian kompetensi,Indikator pencapaian kompetensi adalah perilaku yang menunjukkan ketercapaiankompetensi dasar tertentu.Kata-kata yang digunakan untuk merumuskan indikator harusdapat diukur dan/atau diobservasi pada akhir pelajaran.Oleh sebab itu indicator pencapaian kompetensi dalam sebuah RPP akan menjadi acuan pada saat guru menilaihasil belajar. Kata kerja yang digunakan untuk merumuskan indikator pencapaiankompetensi adalah kata kerja operasional, artinya kata tersebut mencerminkan perilaku(pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan) yang dapat diamati dan diukur dengan alat ukuryang jelas.
Penulisan indikator menggunakan persyaratan kondisi dan ada kriteria yangmenunjukkan siswa telah kompeten atau belum kompeten secara individual.Penulisan indikator pencapaian kompetensi mengikuti aturan penulisan kalimatbaku yang terdiri dari unsur SPOK (subjek, predikat, objek dan keterangan).

Subjek dengan menyebutkan  “siswa” 
Predikat menggunakan kata kerja operasional yang dapat diukur dan diamati, Objek berupa perilaku/kompetensi yang diharapkan akan dicapai.
Keterangan diperlukan jika ada persyaratan kondisi atau kriteria khusus dari perilaku dikehendaki seperti waktu penyelesaian, tempat pengerjaan, jumlah yang harus diselesaikan, alat yang digunakan, dll)

Berikut Beberapa Contoh KI dan KD DOWNLOAD DISINI 
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Starteos EOS Block Producer Says it Will Share Proceeds with its Voters

Starteos EOS Block Producer Says it Will Share Proceeds with its Voters


Btcmanager
Starteos, one of the 21 block producers of the EOS blockchain has reportedly announced it would share part of its profits with users who hold its tokens, as a way of appreciating its voters, Finance Magnates reported Dec. 4, 2018.

Starteos Helping Voter Survive the Crypto Winter

Starteos, a firm that claims to be dedicated to promoting the development of the blockchain ecosystem and one of the 21 block producers of the EOS network, has reportedly made it clear that it would offer financial rewards to voters to help them survive the crypto market slump.
“Starteos is still gonna stay with YOU, our most important and best friends! And we gonna share the proceeds with you and make through the difficulties together,” wrote Starteos.
The platform also reiterated via a Medium blog post that after extensively deliberating with its team, it was agreed that giving financial incentives to its loyal wallet users will go a long way in helping them remain “fearless” in this crypto meltdown.
“Starteos understands that many investors assets have shrunk significantly. In a bid to let our loyal wallet users be fearless and panic-free in the cold ‘winter,’ after our internal discussion, we decided to share the proceeds with you,” added Starteos.
With this latest development, Starteos claims all users who delegate Starteos.io as a proxy will start receiving continuous and stable EOS revenue.  

EOS Condemned yet Again

While Starteos’ decision to share its revenue with users may appear a forward-thinking maneuver to some, the move has however raised more questions concerning the decentralization of the EOS blockchain.
It’s worth noting that this is not the first time that EOS has been criticized for operating as a centralized database despite claiming to be a full-fledged distributed ledger technology (DLT) democratic network.
As reported by BTCManager earlier in June 2018, the 21 block producers of the EOS network decided to freeze the funds contained in seven wallets suspected of theft, an operation that is seemingly impossible in more robust and decentralized systems such as the Bitcoinblockchain.
“[This] is the point of crypto; no one should have that power. If you do, then we should just stop wasting everyone’s time,” tweeted Charlie Shrem at the time.
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